This chapter presents an overview of the history of interactions between the III International and its national sections in Latin America. It primarily analyzes the conflicts between the Comintern headquarters in Moscow and Latin American communists. The history of these relations was full of the contradictions between the Comintern’s Executive Committee’s perceptions of the continental revolutionary movement and each nation’s specific realities; between the international discipline of the world Communist party and the goals and interests of the communists in different countries. This chapter is not a comprehensive history of all these conflicts in 1919-1943; instead, the authors will highlight some important examples of them. The authors will also analyze the general attitudes taken by the Comintern towards the idea of armed struggle by the left-wing groups in Latin America and some cases of its implementation (based on the examples of Peru, Cuba and Venezuela). The chapter argues that relations between the Comintern and Latin American communist parties demonstrate both similarities and the particularities of specific countries in the context of the lack of a detailed and well-thought out strategy of the III International over the issue of how to implement revolution in Latin America.